SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Policies)
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
|Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies Policies
|Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and with the instructions to Securities Exchange Commission (“SEC”) Form 10-K and Regulation S-X and reflect the accounts and operations of the Company and those of our subsidiaries in which we have a controlling financial interest. In accordance with the provisions of FASB or ASC 810, “Consolidation”, we consolidate any variable interest entity (“VIE”), of which we are the primary beneficiary. The typical condition for a controlling financial interest ownership is holding a majority of the voting interests of an entity; however, a controlling financial interest may also exist in entities, such as VIEs, through arrangements that do not involve controlling voting interests. ASC 810 requires a variable interest holder to consolidate a VIE if that party has the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. We do not consolidate a VIE in which we have a majority ownership interest when we are not considered the primary beneficiary. We have determined that we are the primary beneficiary of a number of VIEs. We evaluate our relationships with all the VIEs on an ongoing basis to reassess if we continue to be the primary beneficiary. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair presentation of the consolidated financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the consolidated results of operations and cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 have been included.
Non-controlling interest is shown as a component of stockholders’ equity on the consolidated balance sheets and the share of income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest is shown as a component of income (loss) in the consolidated statements of operations.
|Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of total net revenue and expenses in the reporting periods. The Company regularly evaluates estimates and assumptions related to revenue recognition, allowances for doubtful accounts, sales returns, inventory valuation, stock-based compensation expense, goodwill and purchased intangible asset valuations, derivative liabilities, deferred income tax asset valuation allowances, uncertain tax positions, tax contingencies, and litigation and other loss contingencies. These estimates and assumptions are based on current facts, historical experience and various other factors that the Company believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of revenue, costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. The actual results the Company experiences may differ materially and adversely from these estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and actual results, the Company’s future results of operations will be affected.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications did not affect net loss, revenues and stockholders’ equity.
|Trade and other Receivables
The Company extends non-interest bearing trade credit to its customers in the ordinary course of business which is not collateralized. Accounts receivable are shown on the face of the consolidated balance sheets, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company analyzes the aging of accounts receivable, historical bad debts, customer creditworthiness and current economic trends, in determining the allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company does not accrue interest receivable on past due accounts receivable. There is a reserve for doubtful accounts of $0.33 million as December 31, 2018. There was no allowance recorded as of December 31, 2017.
The Company reviews all outstanding notes receivable for collectability as information becomes available pertaining to the Company’s inability to collect. An allowance for notes receivable is recorded for the likelihood of non-collectability. The Company accrues interest on notes receivable based net realizable value. There was no allowance at December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost being determined on the first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) method of accounting. The Company periodically reviews physical inventory for excess, obsolete, and potentially impaired items and reserves. The reserve estimate for excess and obsolete inventory is based on expected future use. The reserve estimates have historically been consistent with actual experience as evidenced by actual sale or disposal of the goods.
|Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
Prepaid expenses consist of various payments that the Company has made in advance for goods or services to be received in the future. These prepaid expenses include advertising, insurance, and service or other contracts requiring up-front payments.
|Property, Equipment and Leasehold Improvements, Net
Property, equipment and leasehold improvements are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The approximate useful lives for depreciation of our property, equipment and leasehold improvements are as follows: thirty-two years for buildings; three to eight years for furniture and equipment; three to five years for computer and software; five years for vehicles and the shorter of the estimated useful life or the underlying lease term for leasehold improvements. Repairs and maintenance expenditures that do not extend the useful lives of related assets are expensed as incurred.
Expenditures for major renewals and improvements are capitalized, while minor replacements, maintenance and repairs, which do not extend the asset lives, are charged to operations as incurred. Upon sale or disposition, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in operations. The Company continually monitors events and changes in circumstances that could indicate that the carrying balances of its property, equipment and leasehold improvements may not be recoverable in accordance with the provisions of ASC 360, “Property, Plant, and Equipment.” When such events or changes in circumstances are present, the Company assesses the recoverability of long-lived assets by determining whether the carrying value of such assets will be recovered through undiscounted expected future cash flows. If the total of the future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of those assets, the Company recognizes an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the assets. See “Note 8 – Property, Equipment and Leasehold Improvements, Net” for further information.
Goodwill is measured as the excess of consideration transferred and the net of the acquisition date fair value of assets acquired, and liabilities assumed in a business acquisition. In accordance with ASC 350, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other,” goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives are no longer subject to amortization but are tested for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired.
The Company reviews the goodwill allocated to each of our reporting units for possible impairment annually as of September 30 and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate carrying amount may not be recoverable. When assessing goodwill for impairment, the Company has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, the Company determines it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then the Company performs a two-step impairment test. If the Company concludes otherwise, then no further action is taken. The Company also has the option to bypass the qualitative assessment and only perform a quantitative assessment, which is the first step of the two-step impairment test. In the two-step impairment test, the Company measures the recoverability of goodwill by comparing a reporting unit’s carrying amount, including goodwill, to the estimated fair value of the reporting unit. There were no events or changes in circumstances that indicated potential impairment of intangible assets during 2018 and 2017.
In assessing the qualitative factors, the Company assesses relevant events and circumstances that may impact the fair value and the carrying amount of the reporting unit. The identification of relevant events and circumstances, and how these may impact a reporting unit’s fair value or carrying amount involve significant judgments and assumptions. The judgment and assumptions include the identification of macroeconomic conditions, industry, and market considerations, cost factors, overall financial performance and share price trends, and making the assessment as to whether each relevant factor will impact the impairment test positively or negatively and the magnitude of any such impact.
The carrying amount of each reporting unit is determined based upon the assignment of our assets and liabilities, including existing goodwill and other intangible assets, to the identified reporting units. Where an acquisition benefits only one reporting unit, the Company allocates, as of the acquisition date, all goodwill for that acquisition to the reporting unit that will benefit. Where the Company has had an acquisition that benefited more than one reporting unit, The Company has assigned the goodwill to our reporting units as of the acquisition date such that the goodwill assigned to a reporting unit is the excess of the fair value of the acquired business, or portion thereof, to be included in that reporting unit over the fair value of the individual assets acquired and liabilities assumed that are assigned to the reporting unit.
If the carrying amount of a reporting unit is in excess of its fair value, an impairment may exist, and the Company must perform the second step of the impairment analysis to measure the amount of the impairment loss, by allocating the reporting unit’s fair value to its assets and liabilities other than goodwill, comparing the carrying amount of the goodwill to the resulting implied fair value of the goodwill, and recording an impairment charge for any excess.
The table below summarizes the changes in the carrying amount of goodwill:
Intangible assets continue to be subject to amortization, and any impairment is determined in accordance with ASC 360, “Property, Plant, and Equipment,” intangible assets are stated at historical cost and amortized over their estimated useful lives. The Company uses a straight-line method of amortization, unless a method that better reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the intangible asset are consumed or otherwise used up can be reliably determined. The approximate useful lives for amortization of our intangible assets are as follows:
In the fourth quarter of 2018, the Company reduced the estimated useful life of its customer relationships to better reflect the expected benefit period. The change in estimated useful life has been accounted for as a change in accounting estimate. The reduction in the useful life increased loss from operations and net loss by approximately $1.58 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.
The Company reviews intangible assets subject to amortization quarterly to determine if any adverse conditions exist or a change in circumstances has occurred that would indicate impairment or a change in the remaining useful life. Conditions that may indicate impairment include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in legal factors or business climate that could affect the value of an asset, a product recall, or an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. If an impairment indicator exists, we test the intangible asset for recoverability. For purposes of the recoverability test, we group our amortizable intangible assets with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level of identifiable cash flows if the intangible asset does not generate cash flows independent of other assets and liabilities. If the carrying value of the intangible asset (asset group) exceeds the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the intangible asset (asset group), the Company will write the carrying value down to the fair value in the period identified.
The Company calculates fair value of our intangible assets as the present value of estimated future cash flows the Company expects to generate from the asset using a risk-adjusted discount rate. In determining our estimated future cash flows associated with our intangible assets, The Company uses estimates and assumptions about future revenue contributions, cost structures and remaining useful lives of the asset (asset group).
Intangible assets that have indefinite useful lives are tested annually for impairment and are tested for impairment more frequently if events and circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds its fair value.
Other assets are comprised primarily of deposits for the purchase of real property and security deposits for leased properties in California, Nevada and New Jersey. The deposits for the purchase of real property are reclassified to Property and Equipment once the purchase is final.
The Company accounts for its business acquisitions in accordance with ASC 805-10, “Business Combinations.” The Company allocates the total cost of the acquisition to the underlying net assets based on their respective estimated fair values. As part of this allocation process, the Company identifies and attributes values and estimated lives to the intangible assets acquired. These determinations involve significant estimates and assumptions regarding multiple, highly subjective variables, including those with respect to future cash flows, discount rates, asset lives, and the use of different valuation models, and therefore require considerable judgment. The Company’s estimates and assumptions are based, in part, on the availability of listed market prices or other transparent market data. These determinations affect the amount of amortization expense recognized in future periods. The Company bases its fair value estimates on assumptions it believes to be reasonable but are inherently uncertain.
|Revenue Recognition and Performance Obligations
During the year ended December 31, 2017 the Company recognized revenue in accordance with ASC 605, “Revenue Recognition”. Revenue was considered realized or realizable and earned when all of the following criteria were met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (2) the sales price is fixed or determinable, (3) collectability is reasonably assured, and (4) products have been shipped and the customer has taken ownership and assumed risk of loss.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” and all the related amendments, which are also codified into ASC 606. The Company elected to adopt this guidance using the modified retrospective method. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material effect on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows. Under the new standard, the Company recognizes a sale as follows:
Cannabis Dispensary, Cultivation and Production
The Company recognizes revenue from manufacturing and distribution product sales when our customers obtain control of our products. Revenue from our retail dispensaries is recorded at the time customers take possession of the product. Revenue from our retail dispensaries is recognized net of discounts, promotional adjustments and returns. We collect taxes on certain revenue transactions to be remitted to governmental authorities, which may include sales, excise and local taxes. These taxes are not included in the transaction price and are, therefore, excluded from revenue. Upon purchase, the Company has no further performance obligations and collection is assured as sales are paid for at time of purchase.
Revenue related to distribution customers is recorded when the customer is determined to have taken control of the product. This determination is based on the customer specific terms of the arrangement and gives consideration to factors including, but not limited to, whether the customer has an unconditional obligation to pay, whether a time period or event is specified in the arrangement and whether the Company can mandate the return or transfer of the products. Revenue is recorded net of taxes collected from customers that are remitted to governmental authorities with collected taxes recorded as current liabilities until remitted to the relevant government authority.
Herbs and Produce Products
The Company recognizes revenue from products grown in its greenhouses upon delivery of the product to the customer at which time control passes to the customer. Upon transfer of control, the Company has no further performance obligations. For sales for which the Company uses an outside grower, the Company evaluates whether it is appropriate to record the gross amount of product sales and related costs or the net amount earned as commissions. The evaluation considers whether the Company takes control of the products of the outside grower, whether it has the ability to direct the outside grower to provide the product to the customer on its behalf or whether it combines products from the outside grower with its own goods and services to provide the products to the customer.
In evaluating whether it takes control of the products of the outside grower, the Company considers whether it has primary responsibility for fulfilling the promise to provide the products, whether the Company is subject to inventory risk related to the products and whether it has the ability to set the selling prices for the products.
Disaggregation of Revenue
See “Note 17 – Segment Information” for revenues disaggregated by type as required by ASC Topic 606.
Due to the nature of the Company’s revenue from contracts with customers, the Company does not have material contract assets or liabilities that fall under the scope of ASC Topic 606.
Contract Estimates and Judgments
The Company’s revenues accounted for under ASC Topic 606, generally, do not require significant estimates or judgments based on the nature of the Company’s revenue streams. The sales prices are generally fixed at the point of sale and all consideration from contracts is included in the transaction price. The Company’s contracts do not include multiple performance obligations or material variable consideration.
|Cost of Goods Sold
Cannabis Dispensary, Cultivation and Production
Cost of goods sold includes the costs directly attributable to product sales and includes amounts paid for finished goods, such as flower, edibles, and concentrates, as well as packaging and other supplies, fees for services and processing, other expenses for services, and allocated overhead. It also includes the cost incurred in producing the oils, waxes, shatters, and clears sold by IVXX. Overhead expenses include allocations of rent, administrative salaries, utilities, and related costs.
Herbs and Produce Products
Cost of goods sold include cultivation costs, packaging, other supplies and purchased plants that are sold into the retail marketplace by Edible Garden. Other expenses included in cost of goods sold include freight, allocations of rent, repairs and maintenance, and utilities.
The Company expenses advertising costs as incurred in accordance with ASC 720-35, “Other Expenses – Advertising Cost.” Advertising expenses recognized totaled $1.44 million and $1.21 million the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The Company accounts for its stock-based awards in accordance with ASC Subtopic 718-10, “Compensation – Stock Compensation”, which requires fair value measurement on the grant date and recognition of compensation expense for all stock-based payment awards made to employees and directors, including restricted stock awards. For stock options, the Company estimates the fair value using a closed option valuation (Black-Scholes) model. The fair value of restricted stock awards is based upon the quoted market price of the common shares on the date of grant. The fair value is then expensed over the requisite service periods of the awards, net of estimated forfeitures, which is generally the performance period and the related amount is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires the input of certain assumptions that require the Company’s judgment, including the expected term and the expected stock price volatility of the underlying stock. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based compensation represent management’s best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of judgment. As a result, if factors change resulting in the use of different assumptions, stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future. In addition, the Company is required to estimate the expected forfeiture rate and only recognize expense for those shares expected to vest. If the actual forfeiture rate is materially different from management’s estimates, the stock-based compensation expense could be significantly different from what the Company has recorded in the current period.
|Derivative Financial Instruments
ASC 815-40, “Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity”, requires freestanding contracts that are settled in a company’s own stock, including common stock warrants, to be designated as an equity instrument, asset or a liability. Under the provisions of ASC 815-40, a contract designated as an asset or a liability must be carried at fair value on a company’s balance sheet, with any changes in fair value recorded in the company’s results of operations. A contract designated as an equity instrument must be included within equity, and no fair value adjustments are required from period to period.
ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging”, requires all derivatives to be recorded on the balance sheet at fair value. Furthermore, ASC 815 precludes contracts issued or held by a reporting entity that are both (1) indexed to its own stock and (2) classified as stockholders’ equity in its statement of financial position from being treated as derivative instruments.
The provision for income taxes is determined in accordance with ASC 740, “Income Taxes”. The Company files a consolidated United States federal income tax return. The Company provides for income taxes based on enacted tax law and statutory tax rates at which items of income and expense are expected to be settled in our income tax return. Certain items of revenue and expense are reported for Federal income tax purposes in different periods than for financial reporting purposes, thereby resulting in deferred income taxes. Deferred taxes are also recognized for operating losses that are available to offset future taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. The Company has incurred net operating losses for financial-reporting and tax-reporting purposes. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, such net operating losses were offset entirely by a valuation allowance.
The Company recognizes uncertain tax positions based on a benefit recognition model. Provided that the tax position is deemed more likely than not of being sustained, the Company recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50.0% likely of being ultimately realized upon settlement. The tax position is derecognized when it is no longer more likely than not of being sustained. The Company classifies income tax related interest and penalties as interest expense and selling, general and administrative expense, respectively, on the consolidated statements of operations.
In December 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TJCA or the Act) was enacted, which significantly changes U.S. tax law. In accordance with ASC 740, “Income Taxes”, the Company is required to account for the new requirements in the period that includes the date of enactment. The Act reduced the overall corporate income tax rate to 21.0%, created a territorial tax system (with a one-time mandatory transition tax on previously deferred foreign earnings), broadened the tax base and allowed for the immediate capital expensing of certain qualified property.
|Loss Per Common Share
In accordance with the provisions of ASC 260, “Earnings Per Share”, net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding during the period. During a loss period, the effect of the potential exercise of stock options, warrants, convertible preferred stock, and convertible debt are not considered in the diluted loss per share calculation since the effect would be anti-dilutive. The results of operations were a net loss for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. Therefore, the basic and diluted weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding were the same for all years.
|Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company applies fair value accounting for all financial assets and liabilities and non-financial assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis. The Company defines fair value as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities that are required to be recorded at fair value, the Company considers the principal or most advantageous market in which the Company would transact and the market-based risk measurements or assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, such as risks inherent in valuation techniques, transfer restrictions and credit risk. Fair value is estimated by applying the following hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into three levels and bases the categorization within the hierarchy upon the lowest level of input that is available and significant to the fair value measurement:
Level 1 – Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Observable inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 – Inputs that are generally unobservable and typically reflect management’s estimate of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
In accordance with the fair value accounting requirements, companies may choose to measure eligible financial instruments and certain other items at fair value. The Company has not elected the fair value option for any eligible financial instruments.
Investments in unconsolidated affiliates are accounted for under the cost or the equity method of accounting, as appropriate. The Company accounts for investments in limited partnerships or limited liability corporations, whereby the Company owns a minimum of 5.0% of the investee’s outstanding voting stock, under the equity method of accounting. These investments are recorded at the amount of the Company’s investment and adjusted each period for the Company’s share of the investee’s income or loss, and dividends paid. As investments accounted for under the cost method do not have readily determinable fair values, the Company only estimates fair value if there are identified events or changes in circumstances that could have a significant adverse effect on the investment’s fair value.
|Assets Held for Sale
Assets held for sales represent furniture, equipment, and leasehold improvements less accumulated depreciation as well as any other assets that are held for sale in conjunction with the sale of a business. The Company records assets held for sale in accordance with ASC 360, “Property, Plant, and Equipment,” at the lower of carrying value or fair value less costs to sell. Fair value is based on the estimated proceeds from the sale of the facility utilizing recent purchase offers or comparable market data. Our estimate as to the fair value is regularly reviewed and subject to changes in the commercial real estate markets and our continuing evaluation as to the facility’s acceptable sale price. The reclassification takes place when the assets are available for immediate sale and the sale is highly probable. These conditions are usually met from the date on which a letter of intent or agreement to sell is ready for signing.
|Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
FASB ASU No. 2014-09 (Topic 606), “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” – In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”. The Company adopted ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations. The Company did not restate prior period information for the effects of the new standard, nor did the Company adjust the opening balance of its accumulated deficit to account for the implementation of the new requirements of this standard.
FASB ASU 2016-15, “Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force)” – Issued in August 2016, the amendments in ASU 2016-15 address eight specific cash flow issues and apply to all entities that are required to present a statement of cash flows under ASC Topic 230, “Statement of Cash Flows.” The Company adopted ASU 2016-15 on January 1, 2018. Upon adoption, there was no significant impact to the Company’s consolidated statement of cash flows.
FASB ASU 2017-09, “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting” - Issued in May 2017, the amendments in ASU 2017-09 clarify which types of changes to share-based payment awards are in scope of modification accounting. ASU 2017-09 also provides clarification related to the fair value assessment with respect to determining whether a fair value calculation is required and the appropriate unit of account to apply. The Company adopted ASU 2017-09 on January 1, 2018. Upon adoption, there was no impact to the Company’s consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
FASB ASU 2017-01 (Topic 805), “Business Combinations: Clarifying the Definition of a Business” – In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805), Clarifying the Definition of a Business ("ASU 2017-01"), which amends Topic 805 to provide a screen to determine when a set of assets and liabilities is not a business. The screen requires that when substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired (or disposed of) is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets, the set is not a business. This screen reduces the number of transactions that need to be further evaluated. If the screen is not met, the standard (1) requires that to be considered a business, a set must include, at a minimum, an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create output and (2) removes the evaluation of whether a market participant could replace missing elements. The standard provides a framework to assist entities in evaluating whether both an input and a substantive process are present. The standard also provides a framework that includes two sets of criteria to consider that depend on whether a set has outputs and a more stringent criteria for sets without outputs. Lastly, the standard narrows the definition of the term "output" so that the term is consistent with how outputs are described in Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2017-01 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those years, with early adoption permitted in limited circumstances. The Company adopted ASU 2017-01 effective January 1, 2018. As the provisions of this guidance are to be applied prospectively, adoption did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
FASB ASU 2017-11,”Earnings Per Share, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, Derivatives and Hedging – (Part I) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, (Part II) Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception” – Issued in July 2017, the amendmentsin ASU 2017-11 are intended to reduce the complexity associated with accounting for certain financial instrumentswith characteristics of liabilities and equity. Specifically, a down round feature would no longer cause a freestandingequity-linked financial instrument (or an embedded conversion option) to be considered "not indexed to an entity'sown stock" and therefore accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value with changes in fair value recognized incurrent earnings. Down round features are most often found in warrants and conversion options embedded in debt orpreferred equity instruments. In addition, the guidance re-characterized the indefinite deferral of certain provisions ondistinguishing liabilities from equity to a scope exception with no accounting effect. This guidance becomes effectiveJanuary 1, 2019 and early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted 2017-11 in December 2018 and applied the new standard as of January 1, 2018. As a result of adoption of the new standard, previously recognized derivative liabilities for conversion options and warrants with down-round features were reclassified to equity as of January 1, 2018. Additionally, the Company adjusted the loss on extinguishment of debt and the income statement impact of the derivative mark-to-market adjustments for the first three quarters of 2018. The January 1, 2018 cumulative-effect adjustment to the Company’s financial position was as follows:
FASB ASU 2018-15 "Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract." – Issued in August 2018, this guidance aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. This guidance is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and early adoption is permitted. The Company elected to early adopt this guidance in the fourth quarter of 2018. The adoption of ASU 2018-15 did not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows and related disclosures.
|Recently Issued Accounting Standards
FASB ASU No. 2018-18, “Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606” – Issued in November 2018, ASU 2018-18 provides guidance on whether certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for within revenue under Topic 606 in order to provide for better comparability among entities. The guidance clarifies which transactions should be accounted for as revenue under Topic 606 and provides unit-of-account guidance in Topic 808 to align with the guidance in Topic 606 regarding distinct goods or services. The guidance also specifies that transactions with a collaborative arrangement not directly related to sales to third parties may not be presented together with revenue recognized under Topic 606. The guidance will be effective for the Company on January 1, 2020, including interim periods, and must be applied retrospectively to January 1, 2018, the date in which the Company adopted Topic 606. An entity may apply the guidance to either all contracts or to only contracts that are not completed as of the date of the initial application of Topic 606. The Company is evaluating the effects the adoption of the new guidance will have on the its results of operations, financial position, cash flows and disclosures.
FASB ASU No. 2018-13 (Topic 820), “Fair Value Measurement” – Issued in August 2018, ASU 2018-13 modifies, removes and adds certain disclosure requirements on fair value measurements based on the FASB Concepts Statement, Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting—Chapter 8: Notes to Financial Statements. ASU 2018-13 is effective for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard will have on its statements and related disclosures.
FASB ASU No. 2018-07 (Topic 718), “Compensation—Stock Compensation: Improvements to Nonemployee Share- Based Payment Accounting” – Issued in June 2018, ASU 2018-07 expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. The amendments also clarify that Topic 718 does not apply to share-based payments used to effectively provide (1) financing to the issuer or (2) awards granted in conjunction with selling goods or services to customers as part of a contract accounted for under Topic 606. The new standard will be effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. Adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
FASB ASU 2017-04 (Topic 350), “Intangibles - Goodwill and Others” – Issued in January 2017, ASU 2017-04 simplifies how an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Step 2 measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. ASU 2017-04 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019 including interim periods within those periods. The Company does not expect the standard to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
FASB ASU No. 2016-02 (Topic 842), “Leases” – Issued in February 2016, ASU No. 2016-02 established ASC Topic 842, Leases, as amended by subsequent ASUs on the topic, which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both lessees and lessors. ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to apply a two-method approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase. Lessees are required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term greater than 12 months. Leases with a term of 12 months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases. Lessees will recognize expense based on the effective interest method for finance leases or on a straight-line basis for operating leases. The accounting applied by the lessor is largely unchanged from that applied under the existing lease standard. We will be required to record a right-of-use asset and lease liability equal to the present value of the remaining minimum lease payments and will continue to recognize expense on a straight-line basis upon adoption of this standard. ASU 2016-02 is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. In July 2018, the FASB issued an update ASU 2018-11 Leases: Targeted Improvements, which provides companies with an additional transition option that would permit the application of ASU 2016-02 as of the adoption date rather than to all periods presented. We plan to utilize this transition option when we adopt this standard on January 1, 2019 and plan to elect to use the transition practical expedients package available to us under this new standard. As a result of adoption of this standard, the Company will record a right-of-use asset and lease liability of approximately $9.29 million on January 1, 2019.